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Border Gateway Protocol is a protocol by which prefixes are exchanged for ISPs registered on the Internet. Currently all ISPs exchange their route tables through the BGP protocol. This protocol requires a router that has configured each of the neighbors that will exchange information of the routes that each one knows. It is the most used protocol for networks with the intention to configure an EGP (external gateway protocol)
The way to configure and delimit the information that contains and exchange the BGP protocol is creating what is known as Autonomous System. Each autonomous system (AS) will have connections, or rather internal sessions (iBGP) and external sessions (eBGP).
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an example of an External Gateway Protocol (EGP). BGP exchanges routing information between autonomous systems while ensuring a choice of loop-free routing. BGP is the main route publication protocol used by major carriers and ISPs on the Internet. BGP4 is the first version of BGP that supports classless domain routing (CIDR) and route aggregation. Unlike internal Gateway (IGP) protocols, such as RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP, BGP does not use metrics such as number of hops, bandwidth, or delay. Instead, BGP makes routing decisions based on network policies, or rules that use multiple BGP route attributes.